Sunday, February 23, 2020

Evidenced Based Practice Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 7500 words

Evidenced Based Practice Paper - Essay Example The patient population affected the significance of the problem, when the problem became significant, and the current practice and probable proposed change in practice will also be discussed. Spirit of Inquiry The topic of coronary artery bypass graft versus percutaneous coronary stent insertion was an interesting topic to me because I have been doing coronary artery bypass surgery for the past twelve years. During these twelve years, a decline in open coronary bypass has decreased in numbers drastically. Invasive interventional radiology, a new trend in medicine to treat coronary disease without open surgery, has sent the open-heart surgery market down to non-existence. Stent placement has increased, but is it the best treatment? The populations involved in this treatment are adults having acute myocardial infarctions (MI) needing stent placement or open-heart surgery. The adult population being between the ages of 60-70 with an occasional patient in they’re fifties. One problem using stents, instead of opting for open surgery, is that a person could keep coming back for repeat stent placements due to reoccurring angina, thrombosis, and eventually ends up with open surgery after one year anyway (Cohen et al., 2011, p. 1016). Another problem with stent placement is the incidence of stroke or death and quality of life (Kajimoto, Miyauchi, Yamamoto, Daida, & Amano, 2012, p. 155). This population is targeted because there is a higher incidence of Obesity, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Hypothyroidism, and Hyperlipidemia that are leading causes of Coronary Artery Disease. This clinical problem became a significant problem when stent placement during a cardiac catheterization is easier to do than open-hear t surgery (Arjomand, McCormick, Turi, & et al., 2003, p. 790). It has decreased open bypass drastically as mentioned above. With the stent placement, patients are on Plavix, which is expensive, and with the open procedure they are not required to be on blood thinners as a rule. I am really not sure if there is preferred current practices per say, but I think it is left up to the Interventional cardiologist. He decides who gets a stent, how many and if they should be consulted out to a heart surgeon. A good clinical example is a patient that was forty-two years old went to the catheterization lab and received four stents, two to the right coronary artery, one to the circumflex, and one to diagonal. Two months later, the guy came back with angina and back pain. Another catheterization was done and his right coronary stent had a thrombosis and closed off. He then was consulted out to the heart surgeon. If the open procedure with arterial and vein grafts were done first this second cath eterization could have been averted. On the other hand, who plays God and makes these guidelines and choices. To understand each procedure, Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) and Open Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

Friday, February 7, 2020

Leadership in context 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Leadership in context 2 - Essay Example The general perspective of leadership focuses on the responsibilities given to both people and their performance. It is believed that moral efficacy helps to determine the reason why a leader acts upon his or her moral judgment while others fail on the same idea. Role of the Leader In Terms of Power and the Opportunity to Abuse their Role According to Hannah (2010) a highly developed moral leader is expected to perform a given task or work in his or her self-concept in order to achieve higher levels of agency in making the right decision. Modern governor’s plays an important role in leadership is concerned with the development of self concept which should be supported by ones knowledge in applying theories like cognitive and emotional. The individual on governors need to lead with a lot of power of their personal strength and charisma. Hannah (2010) argues that the governor has a primary goal of overlapping the powers of the political systems in the states. According to Albert Bandura (2004) social learning theory remains the most influential theories explaining about learning and development in relation to understanding the behaviors of leaders and their followers. The argument is more about the concept and exploration of leadership behaviors, which is perceived by observing other people behavior. Leaders have to set policy making processes in order to rule the state with the legitimacy procedures. The formal powers and the responsibilities assist in strengthening the constitutional rights. The behavioral focus separates social learning theory from the aspects of leadership hence it requires behaviors to be imparted even to leaders in future (Mayo 2007). Coalition Building Power Leaders should be in a position to have a certain character traits of the specific context, which defines an enormous success in an organization. The focus of leadership is based on the situational context by putting more effort on the individual part and CEO in believe that the individual is correct according to the new settings in the organization. The ability to succeed depends on the styles in ones self and the approach to fit in the culture and condition of the organization. State system should have the power to persuade the agreement between the governors and legislators in achieving their goals in building coalition. In order to achieve on the goals, the governor should be in a position to persuade the people towards their opposition. The governors should develop a strong support in the constitution rights to solve the problems like bureaucracy. Governors should have to offer some chances to the other members of the support on the proposed legislation in order to support the political goals. Role of Chief Legislature Context in leadership helps somebody pass through a hard life situations. Governors should have a clear goal to become the nations leading in the creation and innovation of agencies. The vision of leading in an organization determines a lot in solving the problem. A force for change helps in the sustainability leadership which is termed to be relational meaning that something extraordinary is imparted in people (Lynham 2006). Law making process needs to be monitored and evaluated in every organization in order to produce an effective work. Leadership is contextual because it needs somebody to get

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Comparing Mid Term Break and Om my first Sonne Essay Example for Free

Comparing Mid Term Break and Om my first Sonne Essay 1) What do we learn about children who have died? For the first time in six weeks. paler now, Those they leave behind them mourn them. The poets parents found it more difficult then Seamus because he didnt know his brother that much, he had a distanced relationship. Snow drops and candles shows the compassion of the event, he does this by good use of symbolism. He used the snow drops to show that he died in peace as they are white and innocent like his brother. A four foot box, a foot for every year Only now does Seamus realize that he will only have the memory of his brother. Wearing a poppy bruise on his left temple. Poppies are commonly used to portray the violent, tragic death of a young person, in this case his younger brother. We also know that he got hit by a car so hard that it killed him the bumper knocked him clear. We know that he died on his 7th birthday, seven years tho were lent to me. No matter how protective parents are over their children there are greater forces that can determine the faith of the children that are out of the parents hands. scapd worlds, and fleshes rage Jonson is telling the reader that his son has now left the real world and doesnt have to deal with any awful things that you might come across in your lifetime. 2) What do we learn about feelings of the writers? Seamus doesnt express any of his own feeling, Only feelings of others; Big Jim Evans to feel that the car incident to be a hard blow. On a literal level, it shows of the impact of car hitting the little brother whereas metaphorically, the incident could also show the emotional blow. He says For the first time in six weeks. Paler now, This indicates that Seamus didnt have such a close relationship with his brother. It also suggests that the poet only had the fleeting memory of his brother as a baby and hardly ever sees him, therefore contributing largely to the fact that the poet was not grieving over his death because of their distanced relationship or because he hast come to terms with his brothers death. Mid-Term Break the family cannot accept the death. They feel that it is unjust, as the child was so young and innocent. This poem starts talking about the death using farewell. This hints that he is saying good-bye to his son and this is his way of letting him go. Ben Jonson uses faith to help him through the bereavement. Biblical phrases like child of my right hand, my sinne was are scattered through the text. The poets feelings were uncertain with doubts and sorrow. O, could I loose all father now. By using conditionals suggests that he is questioning his faith as he doesnt understand why God would take away his loves one. My sin too much hope for thee, loved boy. Jonson doesnt want to have any more children as the pain of losing them is overwhelming. 3) How have the writers expressed their feelings? Seamus Heaney uses indirect ways to portray grief, by describing events that happen after the death. Heaney doesnt talk or write about how he feels, he writes about what he sees and remembers. He is keeping his emotions silent. His writing is detached because he expresses no emotion himself, and if he does it is understated and under layers of what he says. He is confused about his brothers death and reports the poem like an outsider. Alternatively, he may write like an outsider because its so tragic and he cant express his own feelings because he wont be able to come to terms with it. Ben Jonson writes On My First Sonne from a fathers point of view grieving over the death of his very young son. He uses the Iambic Pentameter which reflects the sound of a heart beat. He does this because its the first and last thing a human hears, this links to the birth and death of his short lived son. He also used a rhetorical question he should envie? He states that he is jealous of his son, because now he is closer to god in heaven. He indicates that he is a religious man. His sons death has made him question his faith which used to be so strong. The son, sitting on the right hand of his father, would remind a Christian reader of the Creed, in which the Son sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty; From thence he shall come to judge the quick and the dead.

Monday, January 20, 2020

The Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Toolkit Essay -- Ecolo

Sustainability has become a buzzword in lives of many Americans. The challenge with creating programs that promote and educate on the topic sustainability is that there does not appear to be a consistent definition for the term ‘sustainable’. In the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) Toolkit, the authors suggest that â€Å"sustainable development is generally thought to have three components: environment, society, and economy. The well-being of these three areas is intertwined, not separate† (McKeown, 2002, p. 8). Furthermore, McKeown contends that sustainability should be considered â€Å"to be a paradigm for thinking about a future in which environmental, societal, and economic considerations are balanced in the pursuit of development and improved quality of life† (2002, p. 8). The ESD Toolkit outlines the four basic priorities of ESD, which include: improving basic education, reorienting existing education, public understanding and awareness as well as training (McKeown, 2002, p. 13). At the heart of ESD programs is the â€Å"inherent idea of implementing programs that are locally relevant and culturally appropriate† (McKeown, 2002, p. 13). The toolkit itself is structured to provide an introduction into the theoretical concepts about sustainability, implementing the four priorities of ESD and practical skills that can be applied locally to address global issues. As a health educator, what would be particularly useful are the group activities found in the toolkit designed to explain the concepts of sustainability. The activities are essentially a roadmap for introducing the overarching principles of ESD and activities to develop a program plan. The assignment was how to customize the toolkit to make it specific for teaching su... ...and Eastern Europe (REC). (February 2000). â€Å"Introduction: What is a Local Environmental Action Program?† In: Guide to Implementing Local Environmental Action Programs. LEAP – Local Environmental Action Programs in Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved from: Facing the future. (2012). Retrieved from: Fleming, M et al. (2009). Ecological Sustainability: What Role for Public Health Education? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 6, 2028-2040. McKeown, Rosalyn. (July 2002). Education from sustainable development toolkit. Version 2. Retrieved from: U.S. Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development. (2012). Retrieved from:

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Hrm About Alibaba

1. Introduction Alibaba Group is the world's outstanding business-to-business e-commerce service company, which provides an efficient online trading platform for buyers and suppliers all over the world. It is China's largest e-commerce group which was founded by Jack Ma in 1999, and has developed into seven affiliated groups, namely Alibaba International Business Operations, Alibaba Small Business Operations, Taobao Marketplace, Tmall. com, Juhuasuan, e-Tao and Alibaba Cloud Computing (News, 2012).Besides, Alibaba Group has more than 24,000 employees in 70 cities which scattered in China, India, Japan, Korea, the United Kingdom and the United States (News, 2012). This report will focus on analysis for Alibaba Group's human resource management, in order to reply the demand of its future developments. 2. Background to the case study organization Alibaba Group has  taken a hit as a result that a part of its employees were guilty of online fraudulent activities and irresponsible short- term profit.The announcement of the company showed that nearly 100 employees including sales staffs, manager and supervisor, had conspired to the fraud by deliberately helping fake suppliers in China to register with avoiding the company scrutiny and allowing them to defraud oversea buyers on the Alibaba’s international website (Nytimes, 2011). Surprisingly, these allegedly fraudulent online shops account for 1. 1% and 0. 8% of Alibaba’s ‘Gold Suppliers’ signed up during 2009 and 2010 respectively, which has impacted on the company value and produced a shock to mass beliefs (Economist, 2012).Thirteen people were sentenced ranging from eight months to three years in jail after conspiring with suppliers to gain illegally around RMB 500,000 yuan in this online fraud (Nytimes, 2011). 3. Outline of People Management Issues This issue related to the credibility of  Alibaba is directly due to the internal defects in management, the lack of inside supervision an d few controls of the internal culture. Moreover, the deep-rooted reason should be the problems of its human resources management. Lacking of a set of scientific and effective control and management system cannot guarantee the mplementation of building both core value and enterprise culture of Alibaba. Therefore, the outline of this report about the human resource management issue behind the online fraud of Alibaba is as follows. On the one hand, the management and supervision system has problems. Alibaba Group has not supervised the management in the process of dealing with related complaints about fraud happened between 2009 and 2010, even though some suspected online trading accounts had been deleted and specific inquiries of its international market transaction had been conducted since the beginning of the third quarter in 2010.It appears that in this issue managers ignored fraudulent behaviours behind the performance-chasing. However, in the statement said by Mr. Ma, it was not allowed to violate business honest principal or the basic line of company values (BBC, 2012). Although managers in Alibaba Group have to take responsibilities for the consequences, it cannot be denied that the fraud fully exposed that the lack of internal control, especially the supervision and administration of the management, is one of reasons lead to exacerbate the situation.Additionally, the event of online fraud has been doomed from the start to some extent. With the accelerating pace of internationalisation, the number of employees which rapidly increased from 11,700 in 2009 to 24,000 in 2012 has become a significant challenge that threats the development of Alibaba Group (Hua, 2012). However, weak awareness of the human resource control among Alibaba Group’s executives sets the stage for this online fraud scandal in China. On the other hand, the company may not satisfy the physical and emotional need of its employees.Both the greedy desire and the psychological imbala nce are the internal reason behind the problem. 4. Analysis (linked to HRM theory) There is always a kind of psychological motivations behind any subjective action, and the online fraud scandal of the Alibaba Group is no exception. This report will start the analysis from the view of internal motivations and then moving to the external causes. 4. 1 Internal reasons According to the perspective of Abraham Maslow who is well known for the hierarchy of needs theory, the pattern of behaviours based on individual needs (Poston, 2009).The following are psychological requirements which could associate with the fraudulent behaviours of officers at Alibaba in term of the greedy desire, the psychological imbalance and herd mentality. 4. 1. 1 The greedy desire It is difficult to satisfy individual demands because everyone would move to the next more advanced platform of the hierarchical pyramid that Maslow created frequently once the prior need is met, especially in modern society.Meanwhile, w hen setting Maslow’s model into the business to understand the motivation behind employees’ behaviours, it is not amazing to find that there are also have similar five levels of needs which including wages, safety, social belongingness, self-esteem and finally self-actualization. Maslow and Stephens (2000) have posited out that individuals will not spend an inordinate amount of time to think about their salaries if they are fairly paid. After being paid adequate salary, employee seeks safety physically and mentally on the jobs.And then the stage of needs moves to the third level subsequently-seeking social belongingness in the workplace. Although the working environment is always full of stress and difficulties, training provides opportunities for employees to improve themselves and contact with new people which could help them to fit in. Until the employee make themselves comfortable among different working relationship, it will not allowed to access to the hierarchy stage of self-esteem and self-actualization respectively.Unfortunately, after employees have been satisfied with all these five levels of needs, the worldview, philosophy and value view of them will be generally changed in a climate of corruption. With the early success of corrupt deals by heads of the sales department at Alibaba, they would have an addictive sense of satisfaction and accomplishment which lead to those guilty behaviours for greater interest repeat again and again naturally. In Skinnner’s reinforcement theory, Skinner (1984) has drawn attention to the fact that appropriate reinforcement based on public consequence may influence verbal response.It means that individuals would reinforce a kind of behaviour once its consequence benefit to them. Therefore, it makes sense that managers at Alibaba will help to defraud if dynamically taking managers’ greedy desire into consideration. 4. 1. 2 The psychological imbalance Employees of equal position and qualifica tion serviced in the parallel department with the same salary may have  quite different perceptions of the fairness. When they perceives the disparity between the inputs and the outputs,  different responds will be excepted in various ways, including de-motivation, reduced effort, becoming disgruntled and even disruptive.According to the Equity Theory of Adams, an individual will perceive the ratio of inputs to the outcomes depend not only on the absolute value but also in the relative value in order to measure whether himself or herself is treated fairly or not (Adams et al, 1976). This can be illustrated by the following equation: Individual’s outcomes/individual’s own inputs = relational partner’s outcomes/relational partner’s inputs (Adams et al, 1976). Equity is considered when this ratio is equal. While if this ratio is unequal, it leads to ‘equity tension’ which was called the negative tension state by Adam (1976).Meanwhile, it wil l motivate him or her to do something to relieve this tension. Therefore, it is why some leading cadres at Alibaba Group may feel unbalanced and help to defraud which negatively impact on the credibility of the company. With the rapid expansion of international business scale in the development of Alibaba Group, they consider their contribution to the company is greater than the return. As a result, corruption was caused secretly by the combination of selfish desire and power without supervision. 4. 2 External reasons 4. 2. 1 OpportunityThe officers participated in the fraud are almost from a high-powered job position in Alibaba Group and own important resource and privileges in the company. Therefore, it is easy for them to commit a crime with close interest people once they are lured by short-term profits. 4. 2. 2 The lack of control and management system It is not just incorrect psychological requirement or the unsound political system is blamed for breeding corruption, the lack of core value and culture control of the company is one of the significant factors which could not be ignored.The development of supervision before the event, at present and after the event all depends on the growth of the enterprise culture. Thus, if the pre-supervision runs into a problem, it represents the failure in enterprise culture management. There are six core values guide Alibaba Group’s operations and operate its culture, which including customer first, teamwork, embrace change, integrity passion and commitment (News, 1999). However, it is difficult to transform corporate culture into practice to some extent.Meanwhile, with the rapidly increased number of employees in Alibaba Group, the previous culture management has to further improve. Organizational culture diagnoses and cultural audits, for example, can give an accurate picture of an organization’s current management system (Mason, 2012). 5. Critical Reflection on group presentation Because our group has not given the presentation to the class, I could just conclud some limitation about the analysis of this report. Due to the theories of human resource management are not fully understood, the analysis of the case study about the Alibaba Group is not in-depth and incomplete.Moreover, the report has only provided superficial explanations of the issue because of the insufficient knowledge of Alibaba Group and the limitation of those methods linked with. Besides, the recommendations have not taken everything into consideration. They are too abstract and theoretical that are not seen as scientific, feasible suggestions in practice. However, analysing the issue of human resource management in the view of psychology is an innovative point of this report. 6. Recommendations 6. 1 Strengthen job rotation system in the key positionAlibaba Group should strengthen the job rotation system to avoid the corruption, especially in some key positions. According Shalley and Oldham (2004), employees wi ll have job burnout of different extents as well as reduction of creativity after 6 years working in the same position. However, if the company could do the job rotation periodically and provide support to any employees transitioning out of the company, the situation will be changed as it not only prevents managers from increasing spheres of influence, but also gives opportunities to employees to gain experience in their professions. 6. 2 Establish the mechanism of risk managementRisk management of all positions in the internal enterprise is an important part of the management system. Alibaba Group should clear the level of risk in different position and establish an internal regulatory system which includes ‘peer review’ mechanism, department regulatory system, internal audit and external audit mechanisms to ensure mutual supervision avoid unnecessary credit losses. 6. 3 Establish psychological management mechanism It is necessary to give psychological training program me at least once a month for intensifying the efforts of anti-corruption and enhancing the management of core value and culture in Alibaba Group.Besides, relevant department would better assign a special supervisor to investigate the staff on suspicion of corruption. 6. 4 Improve the mechanism of incentives and restrictions Alibaba Group should keep its employees hold the sense of crisis and responsibility and correct the psychological imbalance at the same time, such as using gaming-style leader boards to encourage internal competition or offer appropriate prizes to the most successful one. 6. Improve the standard system of selection and appointment Alibaba Group should try to improve the standard system of selection in order to ensure the person employed has higher organizational commitment. Additionally, it is necessary to introduce different kinds of methods of personal testing and assessment which combine the enterprise culture into the evaluation. References Mason, K. (2012). Informing a new business-to-business relationship: Corporate identity and the emergence of a relationship identity. European Journal of Marketing, 46 (7), p. 684-711. Poston, B. (2009). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.The Surgical Technologist, 8 p. 348-353. Available at: http://www. astd2007. ast. org/publications/Journal%20Archive/2009/8_August_2009/CE. pdf [Accessed: 03 Nov 2012]. ADAMS, J. S. , BERKOWITZ, L. , ; HATFIELD, E. (1976). Equity theory: toward a general theory of social interaction. New York, Academic Press. Bbc. co. uk (2011). BBC News – China arrests 36 for fraud on Alibaba and other sites. [online] Available at: http://www. bbc. co. uk/news/business-13986308 [Accessed: 1 Nov 2012]. Economist. com (2012). An online-fraud scandal in China: Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves | The Economist. online] Available at: http://www. economist. com/blogs/newsbook/2011/02/online-fraud_scandal_china [Accessed: 05 Nov 2012]. Harpercollins. com (2008). Browse Inside In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies by Thomas J. Peters, Robert H. Waterman, Jr.. [online] Available at: http://www. harpercollins. com/browseinside/index. aspx? isbn13=9780060548780 [Accessed: 09 Nov 2012]. Hua, T. (2012). Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves. Business Management, Iss. 5 p. 12-13. MASLOW, A. H. , & STEPHENS, D. C. (2000). The Maslow business reader. New York, N. Y. , J.Wiley. News. alibaba. com (2012). Alibaba Group. [online] Available at: http://news. alibaba. com/specials/aboutalibaba/aligroup/group_news. html [Accessed: 02 Nov 2012]. News. alibaba. com (1999). Alibaba Group. [online] Available at: http://news. alibaba. com/specials/aboutalibaba/aligroup/culture_values. html [Accessed: 05 Nov 2012]. Nytimes. com (2011). David Wei and Elvis Lee Quit Alibaba Amid Fraud Inquiry – NYTimes. com. [online] Available at: http://www. nytimes. com/2011/02/22/business/global/22alibaba. html [Accessed: 02 Nov 2012]. Shalley, C. and Oldham , G. (2004).Th e Effects of Personal and Contextual Characteristics on Creativity: Where Should We Go from Here? Journal of Management, 30 (6), p. 933-958. Skinner, B. (1981). Selection by consequences. Science, 212 (4507), p. 501-504. Skinner, B. (1984). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7 (4), p. 547-553. Available at: http://web. comhem. se/u68426711/rft/Skinner%201945%20The%20operational%20analysis%20of%20psychological%20terms. pdf [Accessed: 06 Nov 2012]. SUZANNE, B. And STEPHEN, D. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:

Saturday, January 4, 2020

The First Amendment Of The United States - 2296 Words

The United States is a nation founded on the principal of providing each citizen with a chance to have his or her voice heard, to succeed with his or her dream and to avoid any form of oppression that many countries continue to push on their citizens. As the United States Constitution states, â€Å"Congress Shall Make No Law Respecting an Establishment of Religion, or Prohibiting the Free Exercise Thereof; or Abridging the Freedom of Speech, or of the Press; or the Right of the People Peaceably to Assemble, and To Petition the Government for a Redress of Grievances† (U.S. Const. amend. I). Without the basic freedoms that the First Amendment of the United States Constitution allots to United States citizens, the societal progression that has been made in more than 200 years would be lost. The courageous words of Martin Luther King Jr. would only be a whisper among an insignificant-sized crowd without the freedom to speak openly and voice one’s opinions. The controversial pieces of art created by artists like Richard Serra, David Hammons and Andy Warhol would never have graced the insides of prominent art museums. A Catholic church and a synagogue could not reside beside each other if the First Amendment’s freedom to practice any religion had not been put into effect by the nation’s forefathers. However, the freedom that connects all other First Amendment freedoms, the freedom that allows public figures, like Martin Luther King Jr., to speak openly to the crowd, the freedom thatShow MoreRelatedThe First Amendment Of The United States1647 Words   |à ‚  7 PagesFirst Amendment: Where It Originated and How to Protect It On September 17, 1787, the United States Constitution was signed by delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, who were directed by George Washington. The 1787 convention was called to draft a new legal system for the United States now that the states were free and colonized. This new Constitution was made to increase federal authority while still protecting the rights of citizens. It established America’s National GovernmentRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Essay1322 Words   |  6 PagesThe first amendment to the U.S. Constitution states, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof†¦Ã¢â‚¬  The Supreme Court has been inconsistent in the application of these sometimes conflicting requirements. At times, the Court takes a separationist position, erecting a solid wall between church and state, and at other times takes an accommodationist position, siding with an indi vidual’s right to exercise their religious beliefs. ReligiousRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Essay970 Words   |  4 Pages The first amendment of the United States Constitution protects the right to freedom of speech and expression. One particular form of expression that has grown in popularity is body art; also known as tattoos. This creative form of expression can be displayed anywhere on the body. It is because of this same freedom that I believe there should be restrictions on what and where a tattoo is placed. Some feel as if the Marine Corps shouldn’t have any tattoo restrictions. But I strongly disagree. ThisRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Constitution915 Words   |  4 PagesThese 45 words of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution embody some of our most important ideas about the meaning of liberty. A nationally recognized leader in the field of law related citizen education has truly broken down the import ance of the First Amendment and he say, â€Å"Remove the First Amendment from the United States Constitution and you strike out the very means of testing the other rights and of protesting abuses of government.† The First Amendment includes six clauses thatRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1090 Words   |  5 Pagesalong with many others that the Wisconsin Interscholastic Athletic Association wrote, â€Å"are clearly intended to taunt or disrespect.† Correct me if I am wrong, but isn’t it my right to taunt the referees, players and coaches? The First Amendment of the United States Constitution protects the right to freedom of expression from government interference. Freedom of expression consists of the rights to freedom of speech, press, assembly, the right to make a complaint or seek assistance from your governmentRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1745 Words   |  7 PagesThe First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that we have the freedom to practice any religion we choose. Having said this, why do so many people look down on or bash religions that are different from their own? It may not seem like this problem is affecting every person directly but if it is affecting other people within the country, it is affecting everyone. There are stereotypes about all different religions and there is a misunderstanding between accepting and approving, whichRead MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1943 Words   |  8 Pagesare many elements of the First Amendme nt of the United States Constitution to address. The area of the Freedom of Speech applies to every aspect of our daily lives. An examination of this area shows us why there are protected and unprotected areas of speech: speeches and actions that have been debated throughout our nation’s history and why they are important and have such an impact on our individual lives and social activities today. The adoption of the First Amendment drafted by James Madison,Read MoreThe First Amendment Of The United States Constitution1534 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Sound familiar? Well it should. That quote was a section of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Those lines are one of the many things that set America apart from other countries around the world. It has protected us for centuries from â€Å"unreasonable searches and seizures†¦Ã¢â‚¬  made by anyone, including the government. This is allRead MoreAccording To The First Amendment Of The United States Constitution,1747 Words   |  7 PagesAccording to the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, the people of the nation are entitled to the freedom of speech, but not all speech is the same. The internet provides us with an infinite amo unt of information, grants us access to virtually everything we could want and acts as an unrestrained vehicle of communication. In the day and age where technology is advancing and social media and internet are of rising importance, the Supreme Court of the United States has been faced withRead MoreThe First Ten Amendments For The United States Constitution1163 Words   |  5 PagesCivics The first ten amendments added to the U.S. Constitution, now known as the Bill of Rights, have played a fundamental role in the Constitution. Still in effect today, the Bill of Rights has become a necessity in order to protect the individual rights of American citizens. In order to prevent an oppressive centralized government, James Madison, America’s fourth president, decided to lay the foundation of civil liberties in ten amendments. The First Amendment allows citizens the freedom of religion

Friday, December 27, 2019

Analyzing and Defining Gangs - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1269 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Sociology Essay Type Descriptive essay Did you like this example? Popular perceptions of gang activity are often based on sensationalized images created in the media. They vary from dramatic reports of gangland shootings to images of young men terrorizing the local neighborhood. Indeed, there are elements of gang culture that are criminal and threatening for the local population; however, gang culture is so complex that a single definition has yet to be agreed upon by social scientists. The primary issue of controversy is whether criminality is a central and causal. Thrashers (1927) pioneering study was the first to look at group processes and psychology of gang life. Through his study of 1,313 Chicago gangs, he concluded gangs are part of the psychological and group process of teenagers in economically deprived communities. He believed gangs are: Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Analyzing and Defining Gangs" essay for you Create order group(s) originally formed spontaneously, and then integrated through conflict.characterized by the following types of behavior: meeting face to face, milling, movement through space as a unit, conflict, and planning. The the development of tradition, unreflective internal structure, esprit de corps, solidarity, morale, group awareness, and attachment to a local territory. (pg 46) By the 50s and 60s, the popular view changed the perception of gangs became one of fear and threat.. Miller (1975) and Klein (1971) published papers defining gangs as innately criminal. Millers pessimistic perspective is apparent in his classification of gangs as: a group of recurrently associating individuals with identifiable leadership and internal organization, identifying with or claiming control over territory in the community, and engaging either individually or collectively in violent or other forms of illegal behavior (pg 9). Miller was echoed by Klein (1971), who defined gangs as: any denotable group of youngsters who..recognize themselves as a notable group. (and) have been involved in a sufficient number of delinquent incidents to call forth a consistent negative response from..residents and/or law enforcement agencies (pg 13) This theme was taken up by law enforcement agencies, and the idea of the gang as a part of the moral order of the community was subsequently gone. The sociological definition of gang was replaced by terms mainly useful to law enforcement, which are still used to this day. Brantley and DiRosa of the FBI (1994) describe gangs as groups of individuals..who associate on a continual basis for the purpose of committing criminal acts. But other researchers maintain the Thrasher group process hypothesis. Moore argues against Miller and Kleins definitions, as she believes they are circular: the definitions include the very behaviour i.e. crime that they are trying to understand. Thrasher and Moores definitions differ significantly from Klein and Millers. Moore (1998) believes criminality is not inherent to gangs and views them instead as unsupervised peer groupssocialized by the streets rather than by conventional institutions. The debate continues, and the lack of agreement regarding the defining features of gangs has made consistent findings and generalizations problematic. Criminal activity remains a pivotal issue in the debate; the criminality of gangs waxes and wanes, and to use criminality to distinguish a group from a gangs is a misleading and unhelpful process. The Phenomenon Gang in the UK and USA Discuss. Anywhere in the world were there are unsettled neighborhoods or a transient population, there are likely to be gangs of youths, coming together to seek the security, sense of belonging and structure they lack in their communities. Traditionally, UK interventions to curtail gang activity have been based largely on the US model, where gang conflict has a long and complex history. However research into why youths join gangs in the UK found important differences between British gangs and their US counterparts, which has lead to a change in the British governments approach. British gangs tend to be gentler than those in America, which are more likely to generate distinct identities, rigid structures and be involved in criminal acts (Klein, 1995). UK gangs lack the American-style initiation ceremonies and specific styles of clothing. In the USA large portions of the population exist on the edge of communities, creating breading grounds for criminal street gangs. In certain urban ghettos men rejoice when they reach 25 years of age because gangland fighting kills more young people than illness or accidents (Community Cares, 1994). Often these areas will be economically deprived. The longstanding social security system in the UK has prevented the same situation occurring. The USA takes a different approach and makes frequent cuts in its social program, investing instead in its penal system. In 2003 the British government proposed to revamp youth services, in an effort to reverse the 18% decrease in youth services since the 1980s. The new legislation places a requirement upon all local authorities to meet certain standards by 2005, and expects them to critically assessment the youth service provision within their area. Councils were asked to make a promise to youths to provide not only the usual meeting places for personal and social development, (i.e. youth clubs and activities), but also programmes related to peer education and ways of ensuring their views are heard. The government pledged 83m to the programme. However, the British government are also taking a stronger stance against antisocial behavior, which frequently involves gangs of adolescents. Although the new anti-social behavior legislation is not aimed specifically at gangs, its purpose is to reduce feelings of intimidation within communities, which is often concurrent with gang formation. Once an Anti-Social Behavior Order (ASBO) is issued, the accused must abide by the stipulations in the ASBO or potentially face criminal proceedings. The US was similarly preoccupied with anti-social behavior in the 1990s, when task forces such as Operation Weed and Seed, and the Office of Community-Oriented Policing Services anti-gang drive, had at its core the desire curb or contain street gangs. New legislation was passed and many states enacted statutes to assist law enforcers. In both the US and UK, this was a response to a concerned electorate, made anxious by the tabloid media. There must be a move in the US towards interventions that do not criminalize young people. The question that should be asked is why are young people joining gangs. The answer is well researched; the need for structure, nurturing, a sense of belonging and perceived economic opportunity create breeding grounds for gangs. If goverments adopt adequate social security programs to meet these basic needs, gangs will not evolve they ultimatly reflect the society that has shaped them. References Brantley, A. C., DiRosa, A. (1994) Gangs: A National Perspective. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. New York Klein, M. W. (1995) The American Street Gang. Oxford University Press. New York. Koutos, L., Brotherton, D., Barrios, L. (2003) Gangs and Society: Alternative Perspectives. Columbia University Press. Miller, W. (1975) Violence by Youth Gangs and Youth Groups as a Crime problem in Major American Cities. Washington Department of Justice. Washington. Moore, J. W. 1998. Understanding Youth Street Gangs: Economic Restructuring and the Urban Underclass. In M. W. Watts (Ed.), Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Youth and Violence (pp. 65-78), Stamford, CT: JAI. Thrasher, F. M. (1927) The Gang: A Study of 1,313 Gangs in Chicago. Chicago III. University of Chicago Press. USA (1994) Community Cares (1994). Socialist review, 179. Retrieved February 10, 2006, from https://pubs.socialist